Tuesday, February 27, 2007

Tijuana to Rio: map quiz Thurs!

Map quiz on Mexico/Brasil Thurs will ask for

* hand sketched borders
* Mexico & Brasil to be connected by snaking Central America
* 10 items of identification in and around Mexico.
* 6 items in Brazil.
* You will get 20 pts.

Historic Patterns of Migration Map -
* Show the route taken by Spain, Portugal, France, Netherlands and Britain as they sent colonists and slaves to the New World to make money from mining gold & silver and farming sugar (zucar).
* Make an annotated European map. Include Africa and Latin America.
* Label all affected nations.
* Use the ocean winds and currents map to draw the route.

Amerindians map:
* Place the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan - a city built on islands - at the site of Mexico City. Add the Aztec pyramids.
* Place the Mayan pyramids on the Yucatan and in Guatemala.
* Sketch the stone roads of the Inca Empire in Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.

* El Nino bis a disruptive ocean current. Explain its impact (see p. 194, WG).
* Largest city of Latin Amer? Mexico City, some 19 million, followed by Sao Paulo, with about 18 million.
* Through which nations does the equator pass?
* Which of thse nations is dominated by mountains? Name 2 ranges.
* Mesoamerica (meso, middle) is a term that refers to Mexico and Central America.
* Make a list of the ways in which Louisiana is similar to nations of Latin America.

¡Horchata valenciana!

¡Horchata valenciana!
Originally uploaded by fluzo.
In Central American and Mexican cuisine, horchata is a rice-based beverage. While the drink is usually white and "milky", some recipes call for milk, and others do not. Other ingredients often include sugar, cinnamon, and vanilla, orange or lime. Though horchata was once typically homemade, it is now available in both ready-to-drink (shelf-stable or refrigerated) and powdered form in grocery stores

According to a folk etymology, James I of Aragon of Spain was offered a glass of the beverage by an Arab girl after his conquest of Valencia, and exclaimed, Això és or, xata! (This is gold, girl!).

In Spain, it usually refers to orxata de xufes (horchata de chufas), made from tigernuts, water and sugar. Originally from Valencia, it is served ice cold as a refreshment.

Two gringos; two mestizos

My Mestizo Table
Originally uploaded by puroticorico.
Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, "to mix") is a term of Spanish origin used to designate people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry.

The term has traditionally been applied mostly to those who inhabit the region spanning Latin America: from Mexico in the north to Argentina and Chile's Patagonia in the south.

Cilantro / Coriander: a classic herb in Mexican cooking as well as Italian and other cuisines

Cilantro Coriander
Originally uploaded by Henna Sooq.
Coriander is believed to have originated in the Mediterranean area, and in southwest Europe. Some believe its use began as far back as 5,000 BC, and there is evidence of its use by the ancient Egyptians. In the Bible, Exodus, chapter 16, verse 31, it says "And the house of Israel began to call its name Manna: and it was white like coriander seed, and its taste was like that of flat cakes made with honey".

Thought to have been introduced to Britain by the Romans as a meat preserver, coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC. In Linear B tablets, the species is referred to as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, and it appears that it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves.

Coriander seed and leaf was very widely used in medieval European cuisine, due to its ability to make spoiled meats palatable by "masking" rotten flavours. Even today, coriander seed is an important ingredient in many sausage products.

Coriander was brought to the British colonies in North America in 1670 and was one of the first spices cultivated by early settlers, says Wikipedia.

Volcanic Mt Popocatepetl in the sky above the paradisical city of Cuernavaca

Letting Off Steam !!!
Originally uploaded by rainy city.
Cuernavaca is located about 50 miles south of Mexico City on the M-95 freeway. It is known as "the city of eternal spring" because of its consistent 27 °C year-round weather.

Cuernavaca has always been a popular vacation destination for people from the Mexico City valley, from the Aztec kings, to the Spaniards and now the wealthy.

The terrain is hilly and the streets are narrow and quaint.

The city has a number of language schools and has, for more than 25 years, been hosting visitors from around the world who want to learn Spanish.

Like tea: the herbal remedy called Yerba Mate'

the state of "yerba mate"
Originally uploaded by ANOXLOU.
The infusion called yerba mate is prepared by steeping the dry leaves (and twigs) in hot water rather than boiling water like black tea or coffee. It is slightly less potent than coffee and much gentler on the stomach, says Wikipedia.

Drinking mate with friends from a shared hollow gourd (also called a mate in Spanish, or cabaça or cuia in Portuguese) with a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bomba or canudo in Portuguese) is an extremely common social practice in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, eastern Chile and southern Bolivia and Brazil.

The flavor of brewed yerba mate is strongly vegetal, herbal, and grassy, reminiscent of some varieties of green tea.

From reports of personal experience with mate, its physiological effects are similar to (yet distinct from) more widespread caffeinated beverages like coffee, tea, or guarana drinks. Users report a mental state of wakefulness, focus and alertness reminiscent of most stimulants, but often remark on mate's unique lack of the negative effects typically created by other such compounds, such as anxiety, diarrhea, "jitteriness", and heart palpitations

Architecture of the Mexican Caribbean: the simple Palapa

Originally uploaded by TrekkerPanda.
Thatched roof, tree trunk columns, open sides: the palapa is made for the Caribbean climate.

Monday, February 26, 2007

Mexican cultural heros: Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera

Diego, the muralist, was hugely famous and admired in the 1920's and 1930's. His wife, Frida, was little recognized at that point. She became hugely popular as an artist decades later. The movie of her life story, Frida, starred Mexican actress Salma Hayek.

This unusual setting is an ofrendas, an altar honoring the dead during the Mexican festival called Dia de Los Muertos.

Mexico City

Mexico City 13
Originally uploaded by weisserstier.
Demographic and geographical review of the two:

1. A Mexican region whose name means, in part, "of the south."
2. Brazil has almost twice as many people as Mexico. T / F
3. Mexico has about twice the land area of Brazil. T / F
4. With about 19 million people, the population of ___ is phenomenal. a) Rio b) Mexico City
5. In Mexico it's the peso; in Brazil it's the a) Real b) Brazilian Dollar
c) Pesito.
6. The cultures of Mexico and Brazil derive from the same peninsula.
T / F
7. While religious preferences are moving toward the Protestant denominations, the cultures of both nations reflect a Roman __ background.
8. Brazil is more illiterate than Mexico. T / F
9. Brasilians have a bit higher per capita income. T / F
10. Corn: a) Mexico b ) Brasil
11. Bauxite: a) Mexico b) Brasil.
12. Petroleum: a) Mexico b) Brasil
13. Coffee: a) Mexico b) Brasil
14. Life expectancy: a) about the same b) significantly higher in Mexico.
15. Native people plus Spanish equals a mixed background called __ in Mexico. a) Mestizos b) Mulatto
16. Highly influenced by African culture: a) Mexico b) Brasil.
17. Mayan: a) Mexico b) Brasil
18. Beer exports: a) Mexico b) Brasil
19. More navigable waterways: a) Mexico b) Brasil
20. Estados: a) Mexico b) Brasil

Above: the great Spanish baroque cathedral in the heart of Mexico City. Is there any surprise that it is built atop the site of an Aztec shrine?

Aluminum Foil covered book

Aluminum Foil covered book
Originally uploaded by paxswill.
Do we live in an era that could be called the Aluminum Age?

Bauxite from Brazil - one of many nations with bauxite - enables us to have aluminum in things such as -

- Transportation (automobiles, aircraft, trucks, railroad cars, marine vessels, bicycles etc.)
- Packaging (cans, foil, etc.)
Water treatment
- Treatment against fish parasites such as Gyrodactylus salaris.
Construction (windows, doors, siding, building wire, etc.)
- Consumer durable goods (appliances, cooking utensils, etc.)
- Electrical transmission lines (aluminium components and wires are less dense than those made of copper and are lower in price[1], but also present higher electrical resistance. Many localities prohibit the use of aluminium in residential wiring practices because of its higher resistance and thermal expansion value.)
- Machinery
- MKM steel and Alnico magnets, although non-magnetic itself
- Super purity aluminium (SPA, 99.980% to 99.999% Al), used in electronics and CDs.
- Powdered aluminium, a commonly used silvering agent in paint, due to its retention of reflectance, even as powder. Aluminium flakes may also be included in undercoat paints, particularly wood primer — on drying, the flakes overlap to produce a water resistant barrier.
- Anodised aluminium is more stable to further oxidation, and is used in various fields of construction, as well as heat sinking.
Most electronic appliances that require cooling of their internal devices (like transistors, CPUs - semiconductors in general) have heat sinks that are made of aluminium due to its ease of manufacture and good heat conductivity. Copper heat sinks are smaller, although more expensive, harder to manufacture, and heavier.
In the blades of weapons (such as swords) designed for stage combat.
- Aluminium oxidizes very energetically and as a result powdered aluminium has found use in solid rocket fuels, thermite, and other pyrotechnic compositions.

Saturday, February 24, 2007

A letter to your teacher from Mrs. Hamza Al'Mahail in Lagos, Nigeria

Originally uploaded by radioskip.
Mrs. Mairo Hamza Al'Mahail
#12, Alhaji Sheu Danbaba Avenue
Off Airport Road
Lagos State,

Dear Friend,

This contact was necessitated after going through your profile few days ago on the internet, my Son and I then decided to communicate you. I know this letter might sound strange to you, prior to the high level of fraud letters in the world today especially from Nigeria. But I must guarantee the genuineness of my letter as you must have heard about it in some international dailies, BBC, CNN and some local dailies here in Nigeria. I am Mrs. Mairo Mahail the wife of major. Hamza A'lMahail, the former chief security officer to the last military Head of State. As you might have known, my husband was falsely accused and detained by the present civilian Government, led by President Olusegun Obasanjo, for attempted coup and is now charged for treason. Recently, the Federal Government placed a restriction order on every member of my family and sized all my husband’s assets and freezed all our Bank accounts both domiciliary and foreign. However, in spite of the antagonistic treatments from the Government, we still have USD $35 Million (Thirty Five Million United State Dollars) which nobody knows about in a bank here in Lagos. I have on several occasions made efforts to transfer the said funds abroad but was not successful, hence, the Bank Manager advised me to source for a reputable and reliable foreigner that will assist me in transferring the said fund abroad. He further assured me of using his position as the Bank Manager to influence the smooth transfer of the said fund into your bank account or any account you may provide. If this is O.K, then you can send me your full names, address and direct phone numbers to this email address after which I will instruct my Son to make arrangement with a lawyer that will prepare all the legal documents.

Thanks for your co-operations.
your truly
Mairo. Hamza Al Mahail
This is typical of the fraudulent letters sent out across the world each day. While Nigeria has become famous as a point of origin for such schemes, there are people from many nations pursuing these scams. According to National Public Radio, each year many gullible people send money to such people in hopes of making a big profit. Of course, those who respond lose every penny they send.

Friday, February 23, 2007

Map of Brazil

map of brazil
Originally uploaded by mattyboy.
Brazil's neighbors (edited for practicality):

* Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Uruguay
* Amazon, Atlantic
* Sao Paulo
* Rio de Janeiro
* Brasilia

Thursday, February 22, 2007


Originally uploaded by Alarmist.

* To make a clear distinction; distinguish: discriminate among the options available.

* To make sensible decisions; judge wisely.

* To make distinctions on the basis of class or category without regard to individual merit; show preference or prejudice: was accused of discriminating against women; discriminated in favor of his cronies.

The touristic basics in Mexico: serape, sombrero, serenade

Originally uploaded by Jan Tonnesen.
Once i was in Cuernavaca, Mexico, chatting with a girl that I really fancied. As we strolled down the street we heard a melodious sound behind us. A traditional Mexican combo, called a mariachi band, was also strolling the street. I took it as a sign from the heavens that the blonde and I were meant to enjoy romance. It was as though we had hired the band to serenade us, but their appearance was simple fortune.

I never saw the girl again.

"Usually a mariachi consists of at least two violins, two trumpets, one Spanish guitar, one vihuela (a high-pitched, five-string guitar) and one guitarrón (a small-scaled acoustic bass), but sometimes featuring more than twenty musicians. The original Mariachi were Mexican street musicians or buskers," says Wikiepdia.org.

Map of Mexico:
* Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean
* California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas,
* Yucatan Peninsula, Baja Peninsula
* Mexico City, Cancun, Isla Cozumel, Acapulco
* Guatemala, Belize

While tourism is well known part of the mexican economy, petroleum might be called the hidden resource of Mexico. Wikipedia says, "Mexico has a free market economy, and is firmly established as an upper middle-income country[13] with the highest per capita income in nominal terms in Latin America,[14], and it is the 13th largest economy in the world as measured in Gross Domestic Product in purchasing power parity."

Wednesday, February 21, 2007

Profile of Mexico / Infoplease.com

Mexico people
Originally uploaded by karen.mulders.
United Mexican States
Official name: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
President: Felipe Calderón (2006)
Land area: 742,485 sq mi
Population (2006 est.): 107,449,525 (growth rate: 1.2%); birth rate: 20.7/1000; infant mortality rate: 20.3/1000; life expectancy: 75.4; density per sq mi: 145
Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Mexico City, 19,013,000 (metro. area)
Other large cities: Ecatepec, 1,731,900 (part of Mexico City metro. area); Guadalajara, 1,665,800; Puebla, 1,345,500; Nezahualcóyotl, 1,250,700 (part of Mexico City metro. area); Monterrey, 1,135,000
Monetary unit: Mexican peso
Languages: Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Ethnicity/race: mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%
Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 6%, other 5%
Literacy rate: 92% (2003 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2005 est.): $1.068 trillion; per capita $10,100. Real growth rate: 3%. Inflation: 3.3%. Unemployment: 3.6% plus underemployment of perhaps 25%. Arable land: 13%.
Agriculture: corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products.
Labor force: 43.4 million; agriculture 18%, industry 24%, services 58% (2003). Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism.
Natural resources: petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber. Exports: $213.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton.
Imports: $223.7 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts.
Major trading partners: U.S., Canada, Spain, China, Japan (2004).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 12.332 million (2000); mobile cellular: 2.02 million. Television broadcast stations: 236 (plus repeaters) (1997). Televisions: 25.6 million (1997).
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 51 (2000). Internet users: 3.5 million (2002).
Transportation: Railways: total: 19,510 km (2002).
Highways: total: 329,532 km; paved: 108,087 km (including 6,429 km of expressways); unpaved: 221,445 km (1999 est.).
Waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals.
Ports and harbors: Acapulco, Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, La Paz, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Mazatlan, Progreso, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Topolobampo, Tuxpan, Veracruz.
Airports: 1,823 (2002)

Profile of Brasil from Infoplease.com

Ilha Grande
Originally uploaded by ludzorzi.
Federative Republic of Brazil
National name: República Federativa do Brasil
President: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003)
Land area: 3,265,059 sq mi;
Population (2006 est.): 188,078,227 (growth rate: 1.0%); birth rate: 16.6/1000; infant mortality rate: 28.6/1000; life expectancy: 72.0; density per sq mi: 58
Capital (2003 est.): Brasília, 2,160,100
Largest cities: São Paulo, 18,333,000 (metro. area); Rio de Janeiro, 11,469,000 (metro. area); Salvador, 2,590,400; Belo Horizonte, 2,347,500; Recife, 1,485,500; Porto Alegre, 1,372,700
Monetary unit: Real
Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Ethnicity/race: white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000)
Religion: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 15%, Spiritualist 1%, none 7% (2000)
Literacy rate: 80% (2003 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2005 est.): $1.568 trillion; per capita $8,400. Real growth rate: 2.4%. Inflation: 5.7%. Unemployment: 9.9%. Arable land: 7%.

Agriculture: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef. Labor force: 90.41 million; agriculture 20%, industry 14%, services 66% (2003 est.). Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment.
Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber.
Exports: $115.1 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos.
Imports: $78.02 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil.
Major trading partners: U.S., Argentina, Netherlands, China, Germany, Mexico, Nigeria, Japan (2004).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 38.81 million (2002); mobile cellular: 46,373,300 (2003). Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997).
Internet hosts: 3,163,349 (2003). Internet users: 14.3 million (2002).
Transportation: Railways: total: 29,412 km (1,567 km electrified) (2004). Highways: total: 1,724,929 km; paved: 94,871 km; unpaved: 1,630,058 km (2000). Waterways: 50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population)
Ports and harbors: Gebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos, Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria.
Airports: 4,136

Brasil vs Mexico: a comparison project

Porto de Galinhas
Originally uploaded by °Teban°.
Prepare a paper or powerpoint-type presentation comparing Brasil (futbol!) and Mexico (toreador!).
25 pts.
Due Mon for 2nd half of the roll.
Due Tues for 1st half of alpha roll.

Presentation itself will focus on
* 3 mult-choice questions and answers.
* illustration(s)
* material from a fun side of the 2 nations, such as food, clothing, art, etc.

Also research and have in the report:
* maps
* rivers, ports
* economic indicators (GDP, PCI)
* standard of living (life expectancy, literacy)
* principal resources
* cultural distinction
Be sure that the
* titles,
* sources and
* illustrations are effective.

Independent work -

Photo of student(s) in school-related event. Add a 2 - 3 sentence description of their activity written In A Foreign Language. You may consult with an advanced student to make sure your grammar and spelling are correct.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

Ash Wednesday Quiz: all about Carnival and Lent

Ash Wednesday Mosaic
Originally uploaded by theologienne.
Coordinated with the questions from How To Mardi Gras:

1. W Af: Senegal, Guinea, Liberia, etc etc
2. bons - good
3. rouler - to roll
4. laissez - to let
5. temps - times
6. gras - fat
7. 12th Night - begins Carnival in La. aka Epiphany.
8. Dionysian - Greek revels
9. Lupercalia - Roman rituals
10. carne - meat / vale - goodbye Latin
11. Lent - Christian; 40 days fasting & abstinence
12. Original Carnival nations: Italy, Germany, France, Spain, Portugal.
13. Medieval times: first mention of Carnival
14. Riotous: throwing bricks, desecrating churches
15. Shrive: forgive your sins
16. Endymion is a female krewe.
17. Parades helped the city move away from anarchy.
18. Carnival origins: Venice, Rome
19. 1st NO krewe: Comus
20. Mobile, AL
21. Alabama: New Years celebration / Cowbellian de rakin Society
NO: Fat Tuesday / Comus
22. Pioneers: dancing!
23. Congo Square: back of the city of NO.
24. Congo Sq: dancing, singing every Sunday.
25. 2nd oldest: Rex.
26. Rex: doubloons, colors, holiday.
27. Rex: "king" Latin
28. a) Comus b) Rex c) Zulu
29. doubloon
30. MCMCXXXXV: 1995
31. MG Indians: "two way pocky way"
32. jazz
33. jazz originates in 1890's.
34. Jazz originates in brass bands.
35. Boeuf gras: Fat beef cow.
36. flambeaux: torches.
37. Louis Satchmo Armstrong: "Red beans ..."
38. Costuming: opposite of who you are.
39. Acadiennes: 100 years in Nova Scotia.
40. Acadians - people from a region called Acadia.
41. Courir de Mardi Gras: cajuns.
42. bals de Maison: house party.
43. Zydeco: blues plus French folk music.
44. Creoles created both zydeco as well as Cajun music.
45. map.

* "From dust you came; to dust you shall return." Ash Wed.
* Nouvelle Orleans: French / New Orleans
* stevedore: dock worker
* Lundi Gras: fat Monday
* picayune: something of tiny value, like a penny; Spanish coin.
* Nola.com (New Orleans LA): Times-Picayune (daily newspaper) site
* improvisation - making it up as you go along;spontaneous activity.
Like a comedian responding to the audience at the Improv Club.

Thursday, February 15, 2007

Background on the New Orleans and global Carnival celebrations

White Toth Mardi Gras Duke
Originally uploaded by Paul J. Murphy.

How to Mardi Gras / Trudeau / 10 pt. activity
Answers to be found in classroom set of How To Mardi Gras. Quiz on this material on Ash Wednesday. Briefly identify the following:

1. West African
2. bons
3. rouler
4. laissez
5. temps
6. gras
7. Twelfth Night
8. Dionysian celebration
9. Lupercalia
10. a) Carne: ___ b) vale: ___
11. Lent
12. First 5 nations associated with carnival
13. First historic era in which Carnevale is written about.
14. Examples (2) of riotous behavior.
15. Shrove Tuesday.

16. Female krewe.
17. Why were parades instututed in New Orleans about 1857?
18. 2 locations for the origin of carnival customs.
19. First krewe of Louisiana.
20. Alabama location with considerable influence on New Orleans (NO) Carnival?
21. 2 differences between Alabama and NO celebrations.
22. Primary public pleasure of the pioneer days?
23. The location of Congo Square?
24. Activities by slaves in Congo Square? Frequency?
25. The second oldest krewe?

26. 3 customs established by Rex.
27. Etymology of “Rex.”
28. Make a timeline of Comus, Rex and Zulu.
29. Cheap coin “throw”?
30. When was How To Mardi Gras published?
31. What organization is brought to mind by “two-way pocky way!”?
32. Blanc et Noir Marching Society will hire what sort of band for the Krewe of Highland parade?
33. When did jazz music begin?
34. In what kinds of bands did jazz begin?
35. Explain the meaning of the boeuf gras.

36. What are the flambeaux?
37. A famous Louisianian signed his letters, “Red beans and ricely yours,” His name and nickname?
38. What is one of the themes of New Orleans costuming?

39. How long did French immigrants live in Nova Scotia before a journey that would take them to Louisiana?
40. Why are they called Acadians, or Cajuns?
41. What is the name for the Cajun Mardi Gras?
42. Another name for a Cajun house party?
43. What 2 types of music mingle in Zydeco?
44. What ethnic group created zydeco?
45. Make a small map featuring Europe, South America, Central America and North America. List nations in which we see a significant carnival celebration.

Independent work -

Write an essay in which incidents are descriibed in a comparison of the Lost Boys of Sudan characters Peter and Santino,

Africa overview - 26 questions

Nairobi National Park
Originally uploaded by Chrissy Olson.
Continent of Africa, continent of Africa / Trudeau

1. The acacia is an East African a) tree b) chimpanzee
c) type of village d) drum.
2. Dakar is the capital of a) Gambia b) Guinea
c) Mauritania d) Senegal.
3. Gabon, Congo, Dem. Repub. of the Congo, Uganda and Kenya: a) equatorial b) Rift valley-related c) linked by the Congo River d) East Africa.
4. Liberia is part of the Sahara region. T / F
5. Marrakech and Casablanca: a) Spain b) Sudan c) Egypt d) Morocco.
6. Gibraltar Island lies in the space where the Atlantic Ocean meets the Morocco Sea. T / F
7. Tombouctou is not in the region called the Sahara. T / F
8. Historic British gold coin: a) Ghana b) Guinea
c) Mali d) Gambia.
9. The river that runs through nations such as Mali, Niger and Nigeria: a) Niger b) Congo c) Nile d) Limpopo.
10. Ashanti tribe: a) Guinea b) Morocco c) Ghana
d) Cote D’Ivoire.
11. Prince Henry the Navigator was a pioneer explorer of the West coast of Africa. His nation: a) Spain b) Portugal c) Italy d) England.
12. Kilimanjaro: a) city in Tanzania b) national park
c) volcano d) East African lake.
13. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania: a) equatorial b) Rift valley-related c) linked by the Congo River d) East Africa.

14. Nation in which there is a confluence of the Nile:
a) Sudan b) Egypt c) Ethiopia d) Uganda.
15. Mining of minerals is a resource of very few nations on the continent of Africa. T / F
16. A region of Egypt: a) Libya b) Nubia c) Ethiopia
d) Jordan.
17. The temple of Abu Simbel: a) Simba b) Mansa Musa
c) ibn Battuta d) Ramses II.
18. Source of the River Nile: a) Lake Tanganyika
b) Lake Tana c) Lake Victoria d) Rift Valley.
19. Number of nations that make up the continent of Africa: a) 23 b) 33 c) 43 d) 53.
20. Inhabited by some 12% of the world’s population, the continent of Africa is bedeviled by an ___ infection rate of some 60%. a) AIDS b) malaria c) hepatitis d) cancer.

21. Largest city on the continent of Africa:
a) Johannesburg b) Nairobi c) Lagos d) Cairo.
22. Nation famed for having the Safari 5: lion, leopard, buffalo, rhino and elephant. a) Kenya b) Nigeria c) Sudan d) South Africa.
23. African city on the Mediterranean that was once Greek: a) Tanger b) Mombasa c) Alexandria d) Cairo.
24. Notable peninsula of Africa: a) Cape Town b) Sinai
c) Madagascar d) Somalia.
25. Nation of Sub-Saharan Africa: a) Angola b) Sudan
c) Libya d) Liberia.
26. Evidence of ancient Arab trade in East Africa: a) Yemen b) Maputo c) Dar Es Salaam d) Addis Ababa.

Lost Boys of Sudan: notes on the documentary

Dinka dance / Southern Sudan
Originally uploaded by trudeau.
Lost Boys of Sudan notes

Peter or Santino: which one did you find more appealing?
Describe 3 incidents that guided your opinion. Explain the symbolism of these incidents.

Santino -
factory job
care of fellow refugees
traffic violations
rent check receipt error
confronts Peter
rommate ill
electrician correspondence class
Sudanese immigrant community

Peter -
manual labor
frustration with American aid
moves to kansas City
new birth certificate
enrolls in high school
American friends
basketball tryouts
national honor roll
friend girl

Lost Boys of Sudan: notes on the documentary

Dinka dance / Southern Sudan
Originally uploaded by trudeau.
Lost Boys of Sudan notes

Peter or Santino: which one did you find more appealing?
Describe 3 incidents that guided your opinion. Explain the symbolism of these incidents.

Santino -
factory job
care of fellow refugees
traffic violations
rent check receipt error
confronts Peter
rommate ill
electrician correspondence class
Sudanese immigrant community

Peter -
manual labor
frustration with American aid
moves to kansas City
new birth certificate
enrolls in high school
American friends
basketball tryouts
national honor roll
friend girl

Afro-Creole men of New Orleans who costume as Indians are unique to theCrescent City

Some of the Mardi Gras Indian tribesmen are good singers and record and perform their chants ("Two-way pocky way!") for festival audiences.

More below.

Typical elaborate Mardi Gras Indian costume

Mardi Gras Indian with Eagles
Originally uploaded by Ed Newman.
Afro-Americans have been masking as Indians for decades. In recent decades the costumes have become immense. The headdress & crown feathers tower and the suit itself is trimmed with feathers.

In numerous panels a mass of sequins are sewed so as to present design motifs of the native peoples. But the spirit of the costume is African.

The Indians chant in a Creole patois and play percussion as they march through their neighborhoods on Fat Tuesday. The following year an Indian will entirely redesign his "suit." It is made by hand with help from family and friends.

Review of the basics on the Crescent City, New Orleans

Originally uploaded by ohad*.
Here's a St Charles Ave streetcar that has been repainted to serve a track that parallels the river aside the French Quarter. This one goes by the Aquarium of the Americas, the Jax Brewery (now filled with shops) and Cafe DuMonde.

What else is in the Vieux Carre of note? Antoine's Restaurant, one of America's oldest restaurants; it's a fine Creole dining sort of place. Things I've enjoyed there? Turtle soup, souffleed potatoes, Oysters Rockefeller, Pompano en Papillote, baked Alaska, cafe Diable.

Terms to ask about if your notes are deficient:
* the ship channel - connects Lake Pontchartrain to the Miss. R.
* 9th ward (lower east side)
* St Bernard parish (south and east of the city proper)
* Tchoupitoulas St - runs alongside the Miss R docks.
* Tulane / Loyola U: on St Charles Ave near the bottom of the crescent bend in the river (Crescent City).
* UNO, on the lakefront, is my alma mater.
* Superdome - west of downtown.
* Upriver is westward; downtown/down river is eatward.
* Creole: Louisiana's blended people; backgrounds such as French, Spanish, Choctaw (Native American) and Afro-Caribbean.

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Seven sacraments: knowing the ancient Christian standards

old priest
Originally uploaded by jsmithly.

Eucharist (communion)
Reconciliation (confession)
Confirmation (becoming a young adult member of the community)
Holy Orders (priesthood)
Anointing of the Sick (especially when near death)

Hope your Valentine's Day is warm and artful

Chinese Valentine's Day
Originally uploaded by Airchild.
Why not give a Valentine greeting, if not a card, to everyone you meet?

Eostre / Easter: ancient European roots of the season

Eostre: Anglo-Saxon (English / Celtic) goddess of the season of Spring. Associated with the rising sun.

Easter: chief feast of the Christian church. Celebrates resurrection of Christ after the crucificion. Date of Easter set by the arrival of the first full moon after the Spring equinox.

B&N Encyclopedia.

Pagan: One who is not a Christian, Muslim, or Jew, especially an adherent of a polytheistic religion in antiquity. The early Christians often used the term to refer to non-Christians who worshiped multiple deities. Christian missionaries frequently sought to stamp out pagan practices by building churches on the sites of pagan shrines or by associating Christian holidays with pagan rituals (e.g., linking Christmas with the celebration of the winter solstice).

Christian timeline:
Epiphany / Twelfth Night
Carnival season
Fat Tuesday
Ash Wed.
Season of Lent (bona opera, "good works")
Holy Week (Maundy Thur, Good Fri, Holy Sat)

From ancient fertility rites (rituals): the rabbit, the egg, etc.

Valentine, Italian bishop who opposed the Roman emperor on a marriage issue. He was executed AD 270.

White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (W A S P): dominant group of American politics and business until recently.

Angles and Saxons were Germanic tribes who migrated to Britain and were influential. Thus the name Angleland, or England.

Roots of Louisiana's Carnival: Europe and even West Africa

Juan Sebastian de Elcano
Originally uploaded by ChromaticOrb.
* Make a map of N. Amer., the Caribbean, the Atlantic and Europe as well as W. Af. (4 pts.)
* Draw lines representing trade routes between the Old World (Europe, Africa) and the New World.
* Write some of the trade goods on the trade lines: gold, ivory, rum, sugar, slaves, etc.
* Identify Cuba, New Orleans, Venice, Rome, Paris, and Senegal & Nigeria.
* Add the notes below.
* Create an imaginative title.

The earliest sites for celebrations of Carnival are Venice and Rome. Identify and color their locations. But it was Paris that was the immediate model for Louisiana's early Carnival.

Carnival comes from the Latin Carne ("meat") and vale ("goodbye"): Carnival season is saying "goodbye to meat." The reason North Louisianians mistakenly call the season Mardi Gras ("Fat Tuesday") is because the region is mostly Protestant. The background of Carnival is Catholic.

Feasting is the theme of Carnival season until the end of Fat Tuesday. The next is Ash Wednesday, the beginning of the season of Lent. On Ash Wed. the priest says to the people at the service, "Remember, man: from dust you came and to dust you shall return."

Because slaves in New Orleans were treated so liberally, there was a lot of African cultural retention. Whites watched blacks dance, sing and parade in costume at the back of town site called Congo Square.
Thus each group influenced each other in the realm of style.

The social group that most deeply carries the Carnival/Mardi Gras tradition? Roman catholics.

Monday, February 12, 2007

Notes on the African report topics: open notes test Tues, Feb 13

Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya
Originally uploaded by khym54.

* African gold mines: historically there were gold mines in West Africa (ex, Ghana) and parts of East Africa (Nubia means Land of Gold). Today gold is mostly mined in South Africa, but there are still deposits elsewhere on the continent (such as Liberia).
* diamond mines of South Africa are dominated by the DeBeers Co.
* Ashanti tribe: tribe of Ghana known for the Golden Stool throne.
* Youssou n ’Dour: Senegalese singer known internationally.
* Atlantic slave trade /Europeans: the Portuguese were the first to sail down the African coast. There they found trade in grain, gold, ivory and slaves. Shipping African slaves to Brazil, the Caribbean islands and the US was lucrative. Among the slavers: British, Dutch, French, Spanish. Of course, preceding all these visitors were the traders who came from Arabia some 500 years earlier.
* Atlantic slave trade / Africans: tribal peoples enslaved each other and sold to the Europeans.
* Mansa (king) Musa: a King of Mali when West Africa was awash in gold. About 1300 he went to Mecca on the pilgrimage called the Hajj.
His enormous wealth made a great impression in the nations he visited.
* King Ibn Battuta: a Moroccan who was one of the great world travelers in the late 1300's. His travels took him as far as China. he can be compoared to Marco Polo.
* Ethiopia: nation of East Africa with an ancient form of Christianity.
* Timbuktu / Toumbouctou: a legendary center of trade near the River Niger in Mali. Today it is suuroounded by the Sahara.
* West African gold mines: in the Middle Ages the region of West Africa was known for its gold. The British called one of their gold coins a Guinea, after the African nation.
* Nubia: a land in the south of Egypt (and Northern Sudan) that was part of Pharaonic Egypt.
* Egyptians: Pharaoh Ramses II, Ramses the Great: the longest-lived and greatest builder of temples and monuments in Egypt. Example: the temple at Abu Simbel.
* Pharaoh Tut ankh amun: notable because his tomb was the only Pharaoh's grave found intact. Otherwise, he was a minor king.
* Nile: the world's longest river, it has 2 tributaries. The Blue
Nile originates in Ethiopia. The White Nile emanates from Lake Victoria.
* Exploration of the Nile: Europeans found it hard to ascertain the source of the Nile. Not until the mid-1800's was the source, Lake Victoria, confirmed.
* Nigeria: the most populous nation of Africa, Nigeria also has the most oil. English-speaking because of British colonization, the Nigerian government is an ally of the US.
* Morocco: an Arabic nation known for the art and handicrafts in its bazaars. Moroccan cities include Fez and Casablanca.
* Liberia: founded by former African-American slaves, Liberia was a stable and comfoirtable nation until the advent of civil war some 20 years ago. It's known for its wood, minerals (including gold & diamonds) and hydroelectric power.
* Swahili: a language used in several nations in East Africa (including Sudan), it is a composite built on Arabic, German and tribal languages. The movie Lion King introduced many Swahili words to Americans.
* Sahara: the word means "desert." It is the world's largest hot desert.
* Gates Foundation activities in Africa: billions are being given to medical institutions to fight diseases such as malaria and AIDs.
* AIDS in Africa: Inhabited by just over 12% of the world's population, Africa is estimated to have more than 60% of the AIDS-infected population.
* Egypt: an important ally of the US, this Arab nation has the largest city in Africa and the Middle East, Cairo.
South Africa: enriched by diamond and gold mines, the nation also the most Europeans and Asians of any African nation.
* Mt Kilimanjaro: Africa's tallest peak is a volcano located in Tanzania.
* Kenya: the home of the Swahili language, Kenya is the land of big game safaris. The "Big Five" animals of Africa can be found in Kenya: the lion, leopard, buffalo, rhino and elephant. Nairobi continues to be the primary communication and financial hub of East Africa.
* Rift valley of East Africa: a crack in the earth's crust that begins in the Mid East and goes below Lake Victoria. Significant discoveries in hominid fossils have promptede scientists to say that mankind must have originated in East Africa.
* Cuisine of West Africa: a poor man's cuisine, it includes foods like the pounded root paste called fu fu and peanut stew.

Friday, February 09, 2007

Chimps in the Piney woods: Chimp Haven; also, progress reports issued

Gimme Gimme
Originally uploaded by contrabandbayou.
Geography class guests on Fri, Feb 9, were Dr. Elysse and Stuart Orchard, specialists in chimpanzees and former residents of Liberia, West Africa.

Elysse is a veterinarian and assistant director of Chimp Haven, the $11 million chimp retirement facility near Keithville.

Whether chimpanzees are retired from medical research, show business, or from being pets, they are full of human-like personality and the world wants them to have a place to live rather than be euthanized. Thus, facilities like Chimp Haven.

Notes from their presentation:
* chimps cannot swim
* chimps are 7 to 10 times stronger than humans. * Jane Goodall one of the foremost researchers. * Chimp Haven will be open for visitors on the second Sat each month from March to June. First date: March 15. See chimphaven.org.

Thursday, February 08, 2007

Egyptian gods of the Pharaonic era: Sobek & Horus

Sobek And Horus
Originally uploaded by MykReeve.
Sobek is the deified crocodile. Horus is the falcon-headed god. Here they are carved in relief upon an obelisk.

Nefertiti: pharaoh's queen today to be viewed in Berlin, Germany

Originally uploaded by @rild.
Map of Egypt:

Red Sea
Sinai Peninsula
Valley of the Kings
Abu Simbel temple

Are the US and Egypt's governments friends or not?
The principal labguage?
Pharaonic era?

Sobek - deified crocodile
Deus - latin, "God."
Great pyramids


Tues open notes quiz? Yes.

Asanta sana! ("thank you!" Swahili)
Islas canarias

Swahili, the language of East Africa

Originally uploaded by ~Netjeret men-Nefer~.
"Jambo!" and "kwaheri!" are Swahili greetings that we're using. My main source for the vocab is here.

Wednesday, February 07, 2007

The continent of Africa, continent of Africa: 53 nations

Dakar Baskets
Originally uploaded by Artbandito.
Africa, the planet's 2nd largest continent, includes (53) individual countries, says worldatlas.com.

It contains the Nile River, the world's longest, and the massive Sahara Desert, the world's largest.

The continent's (highest point) is Mt. Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania, 19,341ft (5,895m), while the (lowest point) is Lac' Assal in the small country of Djibouti, 512 ft (156m) below sea level.

Ocean currents & prevailing wind patterns

Atlantic waves
Originally uploaded by csstudios.
1. Morocco, a mostly dry and hot nation, has beautiful beaches. Alas, the water is frigid. That's because of the __ Current.
2. Islas Canarias, aka the Canary Islands, are on the coast of Africa near the nation of __ .
3. The ocean currents that bring weather systems across the Atlantic from Africa to the Caribbean are the north and south ___ currents.
4. The winds that push weather systems across the Atlantic have a historic name; they are the northerly and southerly ___ winds. They propel ships and weather fronts across the ocean - rapidly.
5. Dolrums - a lack of wind - are found along the equator and in the horse latitudes, which are at the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
6. Americans who go swimming on the Atlantic are sure to find frigid water because of the cold ___ current.
7. American swimmers entering the Pacific waters will find frigidity due to the cold ___ current.
8. The Gulf of Mexico is warmed by the blue waters of the current known as the __ __ .
9. From the ____ Peninsula in Mexico, the Gulf Stream flows north through the Straits of Florida and along Florida's East Coast. When it reaches North Carolina, around Cape Hatteras, it begins to drift off into the North Atlantic towards the Grand Banks near Newfoundland. The Gulf Stream usually travels at a speed of 3 or 4 knots.
10. The Westerlies are a mid-latitude wind current that explains why most of North Louisiana's weather systems come from a) the northwest b) the northeast.

Tuesday, February 06, 2007

Katrina - from the Sahara to the marshy shores of Louisiana

Originally uploaded by jagosaurus.
Prevailing Winds and Ocean Currents

How does a storm get from the Sahara to Louisiana?
* Pp. 62-63, World Geography
* Make a map that combines the relevant forces from the dominant winds and currents. It will answer the question above.
* Label the appropriate winds and currents. Use color.

The hot storm winds of the Sahara blow westward toward the Atlantic. There the storm is picked up by the southward moving __ current. That current, named for islands off the coast of Africa, is cold / hot.
The storm is pushed southward, toward the equator, by the ____ ____ Winds.
There the storm joins a westward current called the __
___ ___. It is pushed northward along the coast of South America by the ___ ___ Winds.
The storm enters a basin of water - below the West Indies and above Venezuela - called the __ Sea. As it goes past Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula it enters the sea called the ___ __ ___ . There it meets the western world’s most famous warm current, the __ __ . If it has become a strong hurricane, it might go ashore, influenced by the so-called ___ Winds. The storm might go northward across several states.

Djembe: principal drum of West Africa

Cadence Carroll Djembe #4
Originally uploaded by Patrick T Power.
The djembe is a goblet-type drum of Africa that has become popular in the US in recent years. The djembe comes in many sizes.

Monday, February 05, 2007

East Africa's most diustinctive tree: the Baobab

Originally uploaded by Vit Hassan.
The Baobab trunk is wide enough to serve as a dwelling for a small family. It is a signature tree of East Africa.

Thursday, February 01, 2007

African art: Ashanti fertility figure

Originally uploaded by Mouse.
The Ashanti are the dominant tribe of Ghana.

Cowrie shells have been used as currency in Africa and East Asia

cowrie spiral
Originally uploaded by omnia.
Let's let Friday be Cowrie Day. Wear items that feature the cowrie.

Westerners call it a talking drum

talking drum
Originally uploaded by k.Akagami.
Peoples of Africa recognize that All drums talk. But this one makes syllabic sounds. It vocalises because the thongs that tie the heads together make the pitch rise or fall with pressure from the player's arm. The high-to-low movement in pitch can be quite dramatic.

Today such drums are used by world-beat bands and indie bands. But the drum originates in West Africa.