Wednesday, December 14, 2011

Jews, European history and the Nazi Death Camps

shylock by trudeau
shylock, a photo by trudeau on Flickr.

Says Shakespeare's character Shylock in The Merchant of Venice:

"I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, heal'd by the same means, warm'd and cool'd by the same winter and summer, as a Christian is?

If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?

And if you wrong us, do we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that."

The Merchant Of Venice Act 3, scene 1, 58–68.

Shylock's complaint about unfair treatment of Jews by Christians has the ring of truth. Yet Jewish people did not try overly hard to accommodate Christians during the historic era in Europe. Jews remained strongly separated from Christians.

Money-lending, the ghetto, misunderstanding of the Jewish law: there were many issues between the 2 groups.

Pawnbroker: an early form of banking, pawn shops were typically operated by Jews

Pawnbroker symbol by GVG Imaging
Pawnbroker symbol, a photo by GVG Imaging on Flickr.

The Diaspora - dispersal of Jewish peoples - was significant during the Roman era. They left because the Romans treated them harshly. The Romans were moderate in their treatment of cooperative people. Rebellious kingdoms received violent retribution. The Jews were bitter toward the Romans and non-cooperative.

Jewish peoples emigrated to every corner of the globe, but most of them went to Europe. Nations famous for their influential Jewish populations were Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Russia.

Forced to live in the back of town, the Jews kept themselves generally separate from the Christians. No Jew would consider a marriage with a Christian. They lived in the ghetto, an Italian word for the Jewish Quarter.

Christians - including the Popes - encouraged mistrust and hatred of Jews. They blamed Jews for the death of Jesus (deicide) and opposed them for not accepting Jesus as Messiah.

From Wikipedia on anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages in Europe:

Among socio-economic factors were restrictions by the authorities, local rulers and frequently church officials who closed many professions to the Jews, pushing them into marginal occupations considered socially inferior, such as local tax and rent collecting or moneylending, seen in these times as a "necessary evil" due to the increasing population and urbanization during the High Middle Ages. Catholic doctrine of the time held that moneylending for interest was a sin, and as such Jews tended to dominate this business. The Torah and later sections of the Hebrew Bible criticise Usury but the Bible is slightly ambiguous. Jews were forced into money lending as there were few other occupations open to them. This provided support for claims that Jews are insolent, greedy, engaged in usury, and in itself contributed to a negative image. Natural tensions between creditors (typically Jews) and debtors (typically Christians) were added to social, political, religious and economic strains. Peasants who were forced to pay their taxes to Jews could personify them as the people taking their earnings while remaining loyal to the lords on whose behalf the Jews worked.

Today, usury means loaning money at exhorbitant interest.

As the Black Death epidemics devastated Europe in the mid-14th century, annihilating more than a half of the population, Jews were taken as scapegoats. Rumors spread that they caused the disease by deliberately poisoning wells. Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed by violence, in particular in the Iberic peninsula and in the Germanic Empire.

Torah, the Jews’ scripture - usually read from a traditional scroll.

Pogrom - murderous massacre of a Jewish community.

Anti-Nazi protesters in Germany: Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl andChristoph Probst

Sophia Magdalena Scholl ( 1921 – 1943) was a German student, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany. She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich with her brother Hans. As a result, they were both executed by guillotine.

Since the 1970s, Scholl has been celebrated as one of the great German heroes who actively opposed the Third Reich during the Second World War.

See a video summary of her story here.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Semester study guide, Dec, 2011

DSC00713 by trudeau
DSC00713, a photo by trudeau on Flickr.

Semester exam: open notes, 100 multiple-choice questions; brief comparison essay that follows guidelines.

This region is called the I-20 Corridor.
- Tx, Ok, La, Ms
- Ft Worth, Dallas, Tyler, Longview
- Shreveport, Bossier, Minden, Grambling/Ruston, Monroe
- Vicksburg, Jackson, Meridian
- add the Miss R, the 30N line
An additional region:
The Red River valley

Include in your sketch . . .
- Tx, Ok, Ak, La
- Wichita falls
- Texarkana
- Shreveport, Natchitoches, Alexandria

1. Shreveport: 32N, 94W
latitude partners: Dallas-Ft Worth. Find partner cities in Arizona,
California and Mexico.
- Continue following the 32N line across China, India, Arabia and
Africa and list the great cities to be found. Example: Tokyo is 35N:
that's close enough to be included in this list.
2. Paris: 48N, 2E.
- latitude partners include cities in the Czech Republic and Ukraine.
3. NYC: 40N, 74W:
- same latitude partners include a city in China.
4. Rio De Janeiro (in the southern hemisphere) : 22S, 42W
- latitude buddies include a capital in South Africa and a coastal
city in Australia.

Earth has an outer silicate (sand, Portland cement, and thousands of
minerals are examples of silicates) solid crust, a highly viscous
)between solid and liquid) mantle, a liquid outer core that is much
less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.

Scientific understanding of Earth's internal structure, says
Wikipedia, is based on observations of topography and bathymetry,
observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the surface from
greater depths by volcanic activity, analysis of the seismic waves
that pass through the Earth, measurements of the gravity field of the
Earth, and experiments with crystalline solids at pressures and
temperatures characteristic of the Earth's deep interior.

Inner core: 4000 miles deep, super-hot but solid, iron & nickel.

outer core: liquid, super hot

mantle: silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, etc; "This mixture
continually rises, cools, sinks warms up, and rises again, releasing
80% of the heat generated from the eartth's interior." - WG

crust: broken, rocky shell; plates of the crust float upon the upper mantle.

- continental drift theory
- plate tectonics, perhaps caused by interior heat.
- magma
- subduction: heavier sea plate slides beneath the lighter continental plate.
- accretion: adding to the material of the earth's crust.
- spreading: sea plates pulling apart, creating a rift (crack).
- folds: layers of rock that have been bent under pressure.
- faulting: cracks in the crust; associated with earthquakes.
- ring of fire: earthquake-prone zone that surrounds the Pacific.

The word "ciao" is an informal Italian verbal salutation or greeting,
meaning either "hello", "goodbye", "bye" or "hi".

1. Jazzy title (of several words) - original, colorful, lighthearted.
2. Name, date and hour in upper right corner. Please print.
3. Source or sources listed simply and briefly in the lower right
corner. Ex: Maps or
4. Color.
5. Neatness of lettering and design.
6. Do not use a "key." Identifications must be placed in the correct territory.
7. Speeling counts!
8. Trim ragged edges of paper. Submit standard, full-size sheets of paper.
9. Save all papers until the end of the semester. Make a file on your
computer to save papers created digitally. Btw, did you realize that
you can make these geography class maps using a program like Paint? -
Equator, O degrees latitude
- Tropic of Cancer
- Tropic of Capricorn
- Shreveport's about 32N
- NYC about 40n
- Navigation - position can be fixed with a sextant.

- Prime Meridian, O degrees longitude
- Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England
- City of Paris about 3E.
- Shreveport about 94W.
- Intl Date Line
- Navigation at sea requires a chronometer

- At the intersection of 0 degrees latitude and 0 degrees longitude,
where are you?
a) North Pole
b) Atlantic Ocean
c) Greenwich, England

- Northern
- Southern
- Eastern
- Western
- cerebral

Overview of the fertile, wealth-giving Mississippi valley map:

- 5 tributaries
- 10 states that border the Miss R
- Gulf of Mexico
- Mrs Mimal
- Mr Wiktm
- mnemonics

What is the national impact of such a region? How should you read an
area with these kinds of resources?
Rivers enhance trade, farming, fishing, tourism and general transportation.

- the downtown grid of the original streets of Shreve Town.
- the Red River.
- the Texas St Bridge
- Bossier City
- Barksdale Air Force Base
- Fant Parkway
- Teague Parkway
- I-20
- Hwy 80 / Texas Trail / Caddo Trail
- Cross Lake and Cross Bayou, which links the lake and the Red River.
- I-49.

Mississippi R
Atchafalaya R
Sabine R
Pearl R
Red R

Cross Lake
Caddo Lake
Lake Pontchartrain
Toledo Bend Reservoir

New Orleans
Baton Rouge
Lake Charles

a) Louisiana`s rivers and large lakes.
Identify 5 principal cities, 5 rivers, 3 lakes and the Gulf of Mexico.

b) Shreveport and the Red River.
Identify 5 historic streets (Texas, Commerce, Market, Spring &
Fannin), 2 bridges, CMHS, BAFB, La Boardwalk and the riverfront

c) The Miss Valley: Miss R, Ohio R, Tennessee R, Missouri R, Arkansas R, Red R.

Be responsible.
Be respectful.
Seek excellence.

Coal is transported to Louisiana to be used in making electricity. The
train journey comprises these states:
N Dakota
S Dakota

1. Name the Bayou State river that lies below the Mississippi, east of
the Sabine and west of the Pearl. a) Atchfalaya b) Red c) Ouachita
d) Choctaw.
2. A 13 year-old student from New York recently used math and his
observation of nature to produce an award-winning science project that
produced improvement in a) flower crops b) natural gas drilling
c) coastal erosion d) solar collection.
3. The name of the Bossier parkway that runs parallel and close to the
Red River.
a) Fant b) Teague c) Caddo Trail d) I-20.


The 5 boroughs -
- Manhattan
- Bronx
- Brooklyn
- Queens
- Staten Is

- Atlantic
- New York harbor
- Liberty Is
- Ellis Is
- Manhattan is
- Long Is
- Long Is Sound

- New Jersey
- Connecticut

Lower Manhattan -

- Wall St financial district
- site of World Trade Center
- Battery Park
- Chinatown
- Lower East Side

- Brooklyn Bridge
- East River
- Hudson R

9/11 attacks -
- most 9/11 terrorists were Saudis in organization called al qaeda.
- most al qaeda money from Saudi Arabian sources.
- radicals / extremists
- al qaeda HQ in Afghanistan. Training camps.
- al qaeda cellular structure.
- Osama Bin Laden, a Saudi, inherited serious wealth.
- Taliban radical rulers of Afghan.
- Taliban treatment of women: burqa, no work, no school.
- Afghan. a quagmire.
- War in Iraq based on "faulty intelligence."
- WTC attack was actually a preventable action.
- 9/11: about 3000 dead.

- deplete / depletion
- desalination
- Ogallala Aquifer, the great one that lies under states from S Dakota to Texas.
- water broker: a person who buys and sells water.

Whether as a consumer of fish or business person or scientist,
aquaculture is a wave in your future.
Protein! The world craves fishy protein and men must find a way to
meet those needs.
Some fish have been over-fished. This results in fishing fleets
ranging across oceans in search of the next watery crop.
Today McDonald's get the flesh for their Filet-O-Fish from ocean
waters near the coast of New Zealand. This fish is called the hoki.
Louisiana pursues aquaculture through farm-raised production of
crawfish and catfish.

3 neighboring states and I nation, labelled in the proper locations.
- Pacific Ocean
- Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Sacramento
- Sierra Nevada range
- Mojave Desert
- San Andreas Fault
- Silicon Valley
Silicon Valley is the high-tech center south of San Francisco and near
Stanford Univ (Palo Alto). Here we see the headquarters of companies
such as Google, Intel, H-P, Apple, Ebay and Facebook.
San Jose, ca, is considered the center of Silicon Valley.
Silicon is the principal component of most semiconductor devices -
such as integrated circuits or microchips.

Among the numerous tech companies in this region, which is sparked by
the enormous brain power at Stanford Univ -
- H-P, or Hewlett-Packard
- Intel, a chip manufacture and design comany.
- Apple, where Steve Jobs has been king.
- EBay
- Paypal.
- Google, founded by Larry Page and Sergei Brin.
- YouTube.
- Blogger.
- Twitter.
The major exception is Microsoft and Bill Gates. They are in Seattle
(Redmond, Wa).
- Steve Jobs (Apple) and Bill Gates (Microsoft).
- Sergei Brin and Larry Page (Google) and Pierre Omidyar (EBay).
- Evan Wiliams (Blogger, Twitter) and Jimmy Wales (Wikipedia).

Spaceship Earth -
- Identify Pacific, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea.
- Identify China, Japan, N & S Korea, Indonesia and India.
- Identify the equator.
- Annotate the map with 5 factoids or mappoids of your choice. An ex:
Himalayan Range, the Chinese region of Tibet, population of China,
pop. of India, etc.
- Documentation (Satellite Imagemap / for the one here) in
lower right corner.
- Jazzy title that includes the terms "spaceship earth" and "6.8 billion."

California is by far the most populous U.S. state,[6] and the
third-largest by land area (after Alaska and Texas), says Wikipedia.
It is home to the nation's second- and sixth-largest census
statistical areas (Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and San Francisco Bay
Area), and eight of the nation's fifty most populated cities (Los
Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco, Fresno, Sacramento, Long
Beach and Oakland).[7] The capital city is Sacramento.
Etymology: the name California is thought to be from a Spanish
mythological tale, the tale of Queen Calafia.
At some 37 million, California's population is greater than that of
all but 34 countries of the world.[42][43] Also, Los Angeles County
has held the title of most populous U.S. county for decades, and it
alone is more populous than 42 U.S. states.
Louisiana's pop. is some 4.5 million. Shreveport's pop is about
200,000. Bossier's is about 60,000. Together the metropolitan
population is about half a million.

A selection of demographic measurements of Louisiana as contrasted
with the US statistics - from the US Census Bureau.

Per capita income
La / US
Persons below poverty level
Bachelor's degree or higher
Persons of Latino or Hispanic origin
American Indian
Black persons
Caucasian pop.
Pop. increase, 2000 - 2010

Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second
most populous in the United States, after New York City,[4] on a land
area of 468.67 square miles.
- Los Angeles enjoys a Mediterranean climate, with an average of 35
days with measurable precipitation annually.
- Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes due to its location on the
Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous
faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually.[44] One
of the major faults is the San Andreas Fault. Located at the boundary
between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, it is
predicted to be the source of Southern California's next big
- El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles del Río de
Porciúncula (The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of the
Porciúncula River).

An equinox occurs twice a year, when the tilt of the Earth's axis is
inclined neither away from nor towards the Sun, the center of the Sun
being in the same plane as the Earth's equator.
The name "equinox" is derived from the Latin aequus (equal) and nox
(night), because around the equinox, the night and day have
approximately equal length.

1. Which high-tech company is notably Not headquartered in Silicon
Valley? a) Microsoft b) EBay c) Facebook d) Google
e) H-P.
2. Education - especially advanced study in a university - is the
force that energizes the developments made in Silicon Valley.
Which university is farthest away from this region? a) UCLA b) UC
Berkeley c) Stanford d) Harvard.
3. There is a Louisiana population in the Bay Area of San
Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley. Name the La-Cal connection that is more
likely than the others. a) Af-Am residents of La and Tx migrated
westward in the post-WWII years in search of better jobs. b) Oil
fields surrounding San Fancisco Bay drew La residents who had
background in oil drilling. c) Fine restaurants in San Francisco hired
numerous Creole chefs from La.
d) Sugar cane and cotton fields around Oakland drew many La farm workers.

The name "Chicago" implies a respect for indigenous cultures since it
is derived from the Miami-Illinois language. Since it is a French
version of a word from the indigenous people, we are reminded that
French explorers and traders were important part of the early American

LA's full name:
The town of Our Lady (mother of Jesus in Roman Catholic parlance),
Queen of the Angels of the River Porciuncula.
- Watts Towers - primitive art by an Italian immigrant in a
neighborhood that became a major Af-Am ghetto.
ghetto: Italian word which means "the section where the Jews live."
Jewish ghettos in Europe existed because Jews were viewed as alien due
to being a cultural minority and due to their non-Christian beliefs in
a Renaissance Christian environment, says Wikipedia.
- Rodeo Drive - posh shopping district.
- RMS Queen Mary, retired steam liner twice the size of the Titanic.
- Disneyland dates from 1955.
- LaBrea Tar Pits: Asphaltum or tar (brea in Spanish) has seeped up
from the ground in this area for tens of thousands of years. Over many
centuries, animals that came to drink the water fell in, sank in the
tar, and were preserved as bones. Ex: mammoths, sloths and
saber-toothed tiger.
- Hollywood Hills: an affluent and exclusive neighborhood in the Santa
Monica Mountains. By 1915 the movie business had largely relocated
here from NYC.
- Chinatown Los Angeles
- Venice Beach & Boardwalk: people watching and trendy shopping.
- The J Paul Getty Museum and LA County Museum of Art: major art centers.
- Warner brothers Studios: take a tour!
- Beverly Hills: a posh municipality next door to Bel Air, Holmby
Hills and West Hollywood.
- Marina Del Rey: major yacht harbor near LAX and Venice.
- Knott's Berry Farm: famous theme park.
- LA Farmer's Market: The most famous such market in the US.
- Walt Disney Concert Hall: radical building housing a center for
orchestral music. Design is by LA architect Frank Gehry.
- Malibu: 27 miles of beaches; a celeb-studded coastline.
"Southern California saw a huge surge in palm tree plantings during
the 1920s and 1930s, many of which still line L.A. streets today,"
says LA Almanac.

The Windy City, the capital of the Midwest
Population rank in the US?
Chicago founded on a portage between 2 bodies of water. __ and __
2nd busiest airport in the world?
Which recent president has been a representative from greater Chicago?
The first non-indigenous settler was Jean Baptiste du __ . He was a
fellow of mixed ethnicity, including __ and __ .
The name Chicago is a French rendering of a name in a native American language.
In 1893, Chicago hosted the World's Fair, called the World's
Columbian Exposition. It drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered
the most influential world's fair in history.
The 1920s brought notoriety to Chicago as gangsters, including the
notorious Al Capone, battled each other and law enforcement on the
city streets during the Prohibition era.

Leo Fender and the Red Hot Chili Peppers quiz

1. Which plate is moving northward? a) North American plate b) Pacific
plate c) Mexican plate d) Baja plate.
2. One of these is rubbery; one is a metalloid chemical element,
typically found in a dioxide. Which one is used integrated chips? a)
Silicone b) Silicon c) Sillicon d) Sillicone.
3. California's population is about __ times that of Louisiana. a) 3
b) 5 c) 8 d) 11.
4. Which fellow was considered the diplomat in early Caddo Parish
history? a) Tarshar b) Henry Shreve c) Larkin Edwards d)
5. Louisiana has a Humid Subtropical climate type. California has a __
climate. a) European b) Caribbean c) Desert d) Mediterranean.
6. An equinox occurs twice a year, when the tilt of the Earth's axis
is a) inclined away from the Sun b) inclined towards the Sun c) the
center of the Sun is in the same plane as the equator.
7. Which high-tech company is notably Not headquartered in Silicon
Valley? a) Microsoft b) EBay c) Facebook d) Google
e) H-P.
8. Education - especially advanced study in a university - is the
force that energizes the developments made in Silicon Valley.
Which university is farthest away from this region? a) UCLA b) UC
Berkeley c) Stanford d) Harvard.
9. Which university is most closely associated with Silicon valley? a)
UCLA b) UC Berkeley c) Stanford d) Harvard.
10. There is a Louisiana population in the Bay Area of San
Francisco-Oakland-Berkeley. Name the La-Cal connection that is more
likely than the others. a) Af-Am residents of La and Tx migrated
westward in the post-WWII years in search of better jobs. b) Vast oil
fields surrounding San Francisco Bay drew La residents who had
background in oil drilling. c) Fine restaurants in San Francisco hired
numerous Creole chefs from La.
d) Sugar cane and cotton fields around Oakland drew many La farm workers.
11. Louisiana's per capita (per person) income is ___ as the average
income in the US. a) lower b) higher c) about the same
12. Tibet is a region in the nation of __ . a) Russia b) China c)
Afghanistan d) Pakistan.

Day of the Dead (Spanish: Día de los Muertos) is a Mexican holiday,
says Wikipedia.
The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for
and remember friends and family members who have died. It is
particularly celebrated in Mexico, where it attains the quality of a
National Holiday.
The celebration takes place on November 1st and 2nd, in connection
with the Catholic holidays of All Saints' Day (November 1) and All
Souls' Day (November 2).
Traditions connected with the holiday include building private altars
honoring the deceased using sugar skulls, marigolds, and the favorite
foods and beverages of the departed and visiting graves with these as

The Willis Tower (formerly named, and still commonly referred to as,
the Sears Tower) is a 108-story, 1,451-foot (442 m) skyscraper in
Chicago, Illinois, says Wikipedia.[4]
At the time of its completion in 1973, it was the tallest building in
the world, surpassing the World Trade Center towers in New York, and
it held this rank for nearly 25 years. The Willis Tower is the tallest
building in the United States and the seventh-tallest freestanding
structure in the world.

- 5 great lakes
- 3 cities on the shores of the Great lakes
- 3 states on the lakes
- foreign nation above the lakes.

Cloud Gate, a public sculpture by Indian-born British artist Anish
Kapoor, is the centerpiece of the AT&T Plaza in Millennium Park,
Chicago, Illinois, says Wikipedia.
Constructed between 2004 and 2006, the sculpture is nicknamed "The
Bean" because of its bean-like shape. Made up of 168 stainless steel
plates welded together, its highly polished exterior has no visible
seams. It is 33 by 66 by 42 feet, and weighs 110 short tons.
Said to have been inspired by liquid mercury,[2] the sculpture's
surface reflects and distorts the city's skyline. Visitors are able to
walk around and under Cloud Gate's 12-foot high arch. On the underside
is the "omphalos" (Greek for "navel"), a concave chamber that warps
and multiplies reflections.

Connecting the Great Lakes to NYC harbor
- the outline of NY state
- the edge of Lakes Erie and Ontario
- Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse and Albany.
- the highway that connects the above cities, which parallels the Erie
Canal of 1825.
- the Hudson River
- The Erie Canal was a huge investment and gamble for the state of NY,
but it paid off.
The Erie Canal enabled the shipment of iron, coal, timber and.
eventually, steel goods, to NY Harbor. That commerce created new
businesses, jobs and much profit. It was especially beneficial to NYC.
Ships in New York Harbor ferried US goods to every part of the world.

New Amsterdam to New York
New York City consists of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn,
Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island.
- Estimated population exceeds 8.3 million people, New York City is
the most densely populated major city in the United States.[5]
- The metropolitan area's population is also the nation's largest,
estimated at 18.8 million people.
* New York was founded as a commercial trading post by the Dutch in
1624. The settlement was called New Amsterdam until 1664 when the
colony came under English control.[7]
* New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until
1790.[8] It has been the country's largest city since 1790.[9]
- The Statue of Liberty, gift of France.
- Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been a dominant global
financial center since World War II and is home to the New York Stock
Exchange (NYSE).
- Empire State Building, 1931.
- Chrysler Bldg, 1930.
- Flatiron Bldg, 1902.
- Harlem: Apollo Theater, Harlem Globetrotters, Harlem Boys' Choir,
Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art,1930's.
- Columbia University - adjacent to Harlem.
- hip hop, disco and Tin Pan Alley in music
- the home of Broadway theater.
- Upper East Side and Upper West Side: wealthy neighborhoods; many
people in towers overlooking Central Park.
- Metropolitan Museum of Art - edge of Central Park.
- Lincoln Center - 10 theaters in an arts center on Upper West Side.
Includes Juilliard School, Metropolitan Opera, NYC Ballet, NY
Coney Island, Brooklyn at the Atlantic: amusement park and history of
hot dogs and hamburgers.

Rockefeller Center or Rockefeller Plaza is a complex of 19 commercial
buildings between 48th and 51st streets in New York City, says
Built by the Rockefeller family, it is located in the center of
Midtown Manhattan, spanning the area between Fifth Avenue and Sixth
Radio City Music Hall at 50th Street and Avenue of the Americas was
completed in December, 1932. At the time it was promoted as the
largest and most opulent theater in the world. The Rockettes are a
precision dance company performing out of the Radio City Music Hall.
During the Christmas season, the Rockettes have performed five shows a
day, seven days a week, for 77 years. Perhaps their best-known routine
is an eye-high leg kick in perfect unison in a chorus line, which they
include at the end of every performance. Btw, every Rockette must be
between 5'6" and 5'101⁄2" tall.
The centerpiece of Rockefeller Center is the 70-floor, 872-foot (266
m) GE Building at 30 Rockefeller Plaza ("30 Rock") formerly known as
the RCA Building. It is centered behind the sunken plaza.

C 1. A similarity between Shreveport and the Windy City, Chicago, is
found when comparing this factor:
a) Shreveport is part of the Bible Belt b) population c) Millennium
Moon mural d) popular foods.
C 2. The run-down Manhattan neighborhood in which many poor immigrants
(notably East European Jews, Italians and Chinese) got their start is
the a) Upper West Side b) the Midtown area
c) the Lower East Side d) SoHo.
B 3. Four of the boroughs are located on islands. Name the two that
share space on one island. a) Bronx, Queens
b) Brooklyn, Queens c) Queens, Long Island d) Brooklyn, Long Island.
A 4. In NY harbor are famous islands such as Liberty Island,
Governor's Island and one small island which was a center for
immigration: a) Ellis Is. b) Rikers Is. c) Hudson Is. d) Roosevelt Is.
B 5. The European explorer given credit for first examining NY harbor
was a) Peter Minuit b) Giovanni Verrazzano c) Henry Hudson d) Duke of

A 6. The earliest site of European settlement in NYC is at the __ tip
of Manhattan. a) Southern b) Northern c) Eastern d) Western.
C 7. Major university associated with Manhattan: a) Harvard b)
Stanford c) Columbia d) Yale.
C 8. When you see landmarks such as Rodeo Drive, Venice Boardwalk and
Arnold Schwarzenegger you know the topic is a) Chicago b) NYC c) Los
D 9. Dutch governor of the NY colony who famously bargained with the
Algonquian peoples:
a) Peter Stuyvesant b) Henry Hudson c) John Peter Zenger d) Peter Minuit.
A 10. Influential, wealthy part of Manhattan: a) Upper East Side b)
Lower East Side c) Little Italy
d) Harlem.
A 11. Name the ethnic group that was welcomed by immigration laws in
the mid 1800's and excluded from immigration by changes in the laws in
the late 1800's. a) Chinese b) Jews c) Italians d) Africans.

1. The approximate metropolitan population of Chicago in millions? a)
4 m b) 6 m c) 9 m d) 12 m
2. Chicago was founded on a portage between 2 bodies of water. They
are Lake Michigan and a) Lake Superior b) Mississippi R c) Lake Huron.
3. Which recent presidents were closely associated with Los Angeles?
a) Reagan & Carter b) Kennedy & Clinton c) Reagan & Nixon
d) Nixon & Eisenhower.
4. Jean Baptiste du Sable was the founder of a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
5. Named for a female-type person: a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
6. World's Fair of 1893: a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
7. Founded by the Dutch. a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
8. Oprah. a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
9. Bagels: a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
10. The beginnings of Health food in America: a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.
11. Largest city in the most populous state. a) Chicago b) Los Angeles c) NYC.

Identify the 14 US East coast states.
- Maine
- New Hampshire
- Massachusetts
- Rhode Island
- Connecticut
- NY
- New Jersey
- Delaware
- Maryland
- Virginia
- N Carolina
- SC
- Georgia
- Florida

- Canada and Nova Scotia Province
- Bahamas
- Cuba
Atlantic Ocean.

Like NYC, Chicago and LA, the sites of Washington are frequently
featured in the news, literature and general media.
- Potomac R.
- White House, 1500 Pennsylvania Ave
- Lincoln Memorial
- Washington Monument
- Smithsonian Museums (general locations)
- National Air & Space Museum
- National mall
- US Capitol
- US Supreme Court
- Library of Congress
- The Pentagon (US Dept of Defense), across the Potomac and slightly
south of the Lincoln Memorial.

Demographics: here are 6 relevant metro populations, acc to Wikipedia.

1 New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA MSA 18,897,109
2 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA 12,828,837
3 Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI MSA 9,461,105
4 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MSA 6,371,773
5 Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA 5,965,343
6 Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA 5,946,800
1 California 37,253,956
2 Texas 25,145,561
3 New York 19,378,102

To be an intelligent citizen of Louisiana is to be a student of all
things Texan.
- Houston
- Dallas
- Austin.
- neighboring states
- Gulf of Mexico
- Rio Grande
- Red R.
- Sabine R.
- Galveston Bay
- Houston Ship Channel (Buffalo Bayou)

T 1. Canada’s population is about one tenth of the US population,
although it is slightly larger than the US in area. T / F
A 2. An island in Eastern Canada came under British rule with the
Treaty of Utrecht (1713). This resulted in a serious change in the
population of a) Nova Scotia b) Quebec c) Massachusetts
d) Montreal.
B 3. Canadians often speak 2 languages, owing to their nation’s
ethnicity: a) English & German b) English & French c) English & Inuit
d) English & Canadianne.
B 4. Born and raised in Montreal: a) Michael Cera
b) Sieur d’Iberville c) Beausoleil d) Celine Dion.
A 5. The French who were born in Louisiana colony were called a)
Creoles b) Acadiennes c) Cajuns d) Gumbo.
D 6. Between their impoverished life in Western France and their
impoverished life as pioneers in Louisiana, the French colonists spent
about 150 years in a) the Caribbean b) British Columbia c) Toronto d)
B 7. Guy Laliberté and Daniel Gauthier founded a) Canadian Waste
Disposals Systems b) Cirque de Soleil c) the rock band Rush d) Quebec
C 8. The nation’s capital: a) Quebec b) Montreal c) Ottowa
d) Toronto.
D 9. The Great Lakes connect to the Atlantic via the
a) Illinois-Michigan Canal b) Erie Canal c) Niagra Falls
d) St Lawrence River.
T 10. Part of Canada is an archipelago. T / F
B 11. “Canada is also geologically active, having many earthquakes and
potentially active volcanoes,” says Wikipedia. This would refer to __
Canada. a) Eastern b) Western c) Northern d) Southern
D 12. The coordinates are 45N, 73W: a) Toronto b) Winnipeg c) Detroit
d) Montreal.
B 13. Land area: which is larger, the a) US or b) Canada?

Maple Leaf Quiz / Geography Open notes review

A 1. This city is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in
the world, after Paris: a) Montreal b) Toronto c) Vancouver d) Ottawa.
B 2. Because of the city's low crime rates, clean environment, high
standard of living, and friendlier attitudes to diversity, _____ is
consistently rated as one of the world's most livable cities by the
Economist. a) Montreal b) Toronto c) Vancouver d) Ottawa.
C 3. It has become the third-largest film production centre in North
America after Los Angeles and New York City, earning it the nickname
Hollywood North.
a) Montreal b) Toronto c) Vancouver d) Ottawa.
A 4. Home to the world-renowned dance troupe Cirque du Soleil.
a) Montreal b) Toronto c) Vancouver d) Ottawa.
C 5. Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville and his brother Pierre
Le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville were born in a) London b) Paris c)
Montreal d) New Orleans.
C 6. Acadians are French people who spent some 150 years living in the
region of Canada called: a) Acadiana b) Arcadia c) Nova Scotia d)
F 7. Canada’s population is about one tenth of the US population; the
US is also slightly larger than Canada in area. T / F
B 8. Oklahoma is part of the American region called the: a) Midwest b)
Southwest c) Northwest d) Southeast.
B 9. The Empire State Building was creamed by a B-25 bomber during the __ era.
a) WWI b) WWII c) Korean War d) Vietnam Conflict
C 10. Strawberry Fields is a location in both a) NYC & London b)
Chicago & London c) NYC & Liverpool d) Chicago & Montreal.
B 11. "OMG, my mother said I have to put my phone up." a) shillalagh
b) shibboleth c) shilly shally d) shilling.

Hola and Bon jour quiz sample questions -

1. Name the Mexican city, Ciudad __, that lies across the Texas border
from El Paso.
2. The capital of French-speaking Canada lies on a river called the __ __ .
3. This city is east of Chicago, west of Cleveland and south of
Toronto: it is __.
4. Toronto is a port on the shore of Lake __.
5. Name a Mexican peninsula on the Gulf of Mexico; it is the __ Peninsula.
6. The Massachusetts peninsula just south of Boston is __ __ .
7. An Asian nation adjacent to Alaska: __ .
8. Which is the more northerly island? a) Isla Cozumel b) Isla Cancun.
9. Name the peninsula associated with the Gulf of California: __ .
10. Tijuana is a riotous border town on the edge of California. T / F

1. Name a Mexican resort on the Pacific coast famous for cliff divers. __
2. Mexico has one great range of mountains that runs from north to south. T / F
3. Whale watching - from December to March - is an event that draws
tourists to this part of Mexico. Name the resort town __ __ __ and the
sea __ __ __ .
4. Your map of California will give you the name of a Mexican border
town that is a short distance south of San Diego: __ .
5. Ciudad Juarez is a crime-ridden border town that is adjacent to the
extreme western tip of Texas. Your map of Texas will tell you the name
of the US town on the Rio Grande at the western edge of the Lone Star
state: __ __ .
6.Which US city is closest to Canada on the Pacific Rim? __ .
7. Which US state is adjacent to Canada on the Atlantic coast?
8. Name the US city closest to the Canadian city of Toronto: __ .
9. Name 5 seas or oceans that surround this map.
10. Name 6 peninsulas that we have discussed on this map.
11. Name the major Canadian city near the Great Lakes: __ .
12. Name the largest French-speaking city in Canada: __ .
13. Quebec City is on a Canadian river that is as important as the Mississippi:
__ __ __ .
14. The ocean north of Canada: __ .
15. Name the high-tech Canadian city on the Pacific Rim: __ .
16. Alaska is separated from Asia by a body of water known as the __ Strait.
17. The Asian nation closest to Alaska: __ .
18. The nation whose population is about 300 million: __ .
19. The nation whose population is about 33 million: __ .
20. The nation whose population is about 100 million: __ .
21. A peninsula which is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico and the
Caribbean. __ __ .
22. The type of gun that represents a mnemonic for the spelling of
Caribbean: __.
23. Nation of a simple cuisine whose favorite french fry-based dish is
called poutine: __.
24. Nation whose cuisine revolves around corn: __ .
25. Cacao beans (chocolate), vanilla beans and chili peppers
originated in this nation: __ .

The British Isles map -
- England
- Wales
- Scotland
- Northern Ireland
- Ireland (Eire)
- France
- Belgium
- Netherlands
- Nord ee
- English Channel (La Manche)
- Atlantic
- London
- Stonehenge site
- Loch Ness
- Edinburgh (golf)
- Belfast (Titanic)
- Welsh / English castles
- Celts: the tribal peoples of Western Europe.

Tower of London - Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more
commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the
north bank of the River Thames in central London, England.
Says Wikipedia, It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the
Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire
castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078, and was a
resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling
The castle was used as a prison since at least 1100, although that was
not its primary purpose.
A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence.
As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two
concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat.

The first bridge over the Thames was buikt by the Romans about AD 50,
or some 2000 years ago, says Wikipedia.
The King John version of the bridge completed in 1209. He licensed the
building of houses on the bridge, as a direct means of deriving
revenue for its maintenance, and it was soon colonised by shops.
The medieval bridge had 19 small arches and a drawbridge with a
defensive gatehouse at the southern end. Contemporary pictures show it
crowded with buildings of up to seven stories in height.
The buildings slowed down the traffic crossing the river. The houses
and shops took up space and could draw crowds, and when carts broke
down or animals misbehaved, crossing the bridge could take up to an
hour. For this reason, people on foot often chose to use the dozens of
river taxi boats that quickly ferried Londoners from shore to shore.
Nearly 200 places of business lined both sides of the narrow street.

Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the
separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church,
says Wikipedia.
Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of
England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and
establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Henry was known by some to be an attractive and charismatic man in his
prime, educated and accomplished.[4] He was an author and a composer.
He ruled with absolute power.
His desire to provide England with a male heir—which stemmed partly
from personal vanity and partly because he believed a daughter would
be unable to consolidate the Tudor Dynasty and the fragile peace that
existed following the Wars of the Roses[5]—led to the two things that
Henry is remembered for: his wives, and the English Reformation that
made England a mostly Protestant nation. In later life he became
morbidly obese and his health suffered; his public image is frequently
depicted as one of a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure

1. A French river that is comparable to the Mississippi in length and
usefulness. __
2. The only consecutively doubled letter in the name Mediterranean. __ .
3. South of Paris is a city that is also the name of a palace created
by Louis XIV: __ .
4. This region lies along the English Channel: a) Champagne b)
Provence c) Normandy d) Bordeaux.
5. This French city is on the border between France and Germany. __
6. The second most-populous French city is on the Mediterranean coast.
When it was a Roman city it was called Massilia. It is named __ .
7. The French call this body of water La Manche. It connects the North
Sea and the Atlantic. It is also known as the __ __ .
8. North of France on the North Sea is a nation famous for French
fries and mussels: __ .
9. On the southwestern edge of France is the Iberian peninsula. On it
are two nations: Portugal and __ .
10. Tucked between France, Germany and Belgium is the tiny European
nation of __ .
11. Across the Rhine River from France - to the east - are 2 nations.
Name one of them.
__ .
12. Across the northwestern strait from France is an island. The
island is known as the nation of __ .
13. Which body of water is missing from this list of seas that border
France? The North Sea, English Channel, Bay of Biscay, and the
Atlantic. One more: __ __.
14. Which great city of France is on the Seine River? __ .
15. On the Mediterranean coast the nation of France borders a major
European nation. It is __.
16. A minuscule European nation on the edge of the Mediterranean is a
neighbor to France. Its capital city is Monte Carlo. The nation is __

Monday, December 12, 2011

BMW Motorcycle and the many outstanding names in German technological success

BMW Motorcycle by engrgoddess
BMW Motorcycle, a photo by engrgoddess on Flickr.

A sampling of German achievements in engineering and technology -

- BMW, Porsche, Audi, Daimler Benz, Volkswagen
- BMW and Zundapp motorcycles
- Leica cameras
- Bayer aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
- Zeppelins
- Messerschmitts and other airplanes of WWI and WWII
- V1 and V2 guided missles of WWII
- Otto: 4-stroke engine.
- Adidas and Puma shoes plus Birkenstoks
- Johann Gutenberg: printing

TImeline on Adolf Hitler due Fri, Dec 16; 10 pts

Adolf Hitler by anamy13
Adolf Hitler, a photo by anamy13 on Flickr.

Rather than basing their evaluation of the murderous German dictator, Adoilph Hitler, on hearsay, I believe students should research the biography for themselves.

The timeline may be done in factoid form. Please include
- one illustration
- one map
- documentation

- childhood
- education
- Development of the Nazi Party
- Election and rise to Chancellor
- Formulation of the "Final Solution"
- Stages of WWII

Also on Fri: brief mult-choice quiz on Deutschland. See prior questions on the map of Germany.

Thursday, December 08, 2011

From Hamburg to Munchen: Deutschland

Magnet fine arts: Deutschland by trudeau
Magnet fine arts: Deutschland, a photo by trudeau on Flickr.

1. Name the capital of Bavaria, which is the Alpine or southern region of Germany.
2. The city in the northwest of Germany that is almost on the North Sea is a port on the Elbe River. It is the second city of Germany and one of the most affluent cities in Europe. It is ___ .
3. In the East, near the border with Poland, is the capital of the Deutsche. __
4. In the center of the nation is the city with the central German air terminal. Its name means "Where the Franks cross the river." __
5. On the Rhine River is a city that was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999. __
6.What is Germany's western neighbor on the North Sea? __
7. What is Germany's neighbor on the Rhine? __
8. In which nation do we find the head , or origin, of the Rhine? __
9. Adolph Hitler was not born in Deutschland. He was born in the neighboring nation on the southeast: __ .
10. Most of the German death camps of WWII were not built in Germany but in the large nation east of Germany: __ .
11. There is a great range of mountains in southern Germany that extend from France and Switzerland all the way to Slovenia. __
12. One of Germany's direct neighbors is a nation famous as a home of the Vikings. __
13. Does Germany have a Baltic coastline?
14. Was there a period in relatively recent history when there was a military alliance between Germany and Italy? If yes, then when? __
15. The name of this famous German auto company translates as "People's Car." Would that be Audi, BMW, Daimler Benz, Opel, Porsche, or Volkswagen?

White Truffles: $2000 a pound

White Truffle Dinner by vainglory
White Truffle Dinner, a photo by vainglory on Flickr.

A truffle is the fruiting body of an underground mushroom; spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi.

Almost all truffles, says Wikipedia, are ectomycorrhizal and are therefore usually found in close association with trees.

There are hundreds of species of truffles, but the fruiting body of some (mostly in the genus Tuber) are highly prized as a food.

The 18th-century French gastronome Brillat-Savarin called these truffles "the diamond of the kitchen". Edible truffles are held in high esteem in French, Spanish, northern Italian and Greek cooking, as well as in international haute cuisine.

Growing symbiotically with oak, hazel, poplar and beech and fruiting in autumn, the white truffle can reach 12cm diameter and 500 g, though are usually much smaller. The flesh is pale cream or brown with white marbling.[9]

Italian white truffles are very highly esteemed and are the most valuable on the market: the white truffle market in Alba is busiest in the months of October and November when the Fiera del Tartufo (truffle fair) takes place. In 2001, the Tuber magnatum truffles sold for between US$1,000 and $2,200 per pound (US$2000 to US$4500 per kg);[10] as of December 2009 they were being sold at €10,200 per kilogram.[11]

Wednesday, December 07, 2011

From Brittany to Monaco: La France! an alternative map quiz

Citroen 2 cv in Shreveport by trudeau
Citroen 2 cv in Shreveport, a photo by trudeau on Flickr.

This map test is an alternative to the orthodox, sketched map quiz.

1. A French river that is comparable to the Mississippi in length and usefulness. __
2. The only consecutively doubled letter in the name Mediterranean. __ .
3. South of Paris is a city that is also the name of a palace created by Louis XIV: __ .
4. This region lies along the English Channel: a) Champagne b) Provence c) Normandy d) Bordeaux.
5. This French city is on the border between France and Germany. __
6. The second most-populous French city is on the Mediterranean coast. When it was a Roman city it was called Massilia. It is named __ .
7. The French call this body of water La Manche. It connects the North Sea and the Atlantic. It is also known as the __ __ .
8. North of France on the North Sea is a nation famous for French fries and mussels: __ .
9. On the southwestern edge of France is the Iberian peninsula. On it are two nations: Portugal and __ .
10. Tucked between France, Germany and Belgium is the tiny European nation of __ .
11. Across the Rhine River from France - to the east - are 2 nations. Name one of them.
__ .
12. Across the northwestern strait from France is an island. The island is known as the nation of __ .
13. Which body of water is missing from this list of seas that border France? The North Sea, English Channel, Bay of Biscay, and the Atlantic. One more: __ __.
14. Which great city of France is on the Seine River? __ .
15. On the Mediterranean coast the nation of France borders a major European nation. It is __.
16. A minuscule European nation on the edge of the Mediterranean is a neighbor to France. Its capital city is Monte Carlo. The nation is __ .

Auguste and Louis Lumière: symbolic of historic French success in technology

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas and Louis Jean were among the earliest filmmakers in history. (Appropriately, "lumière" translates as "light" in English.)

The Lumières held their first screening of projected motion pictures in 1895.

- Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787 – 1851) was a French artist and physicist, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography.
In the mid to late 1800's it was the dominant type of photography.

- Michelin is a tyre manufacturer based in France. It is one of the two largest tyre manufacturers in the world along with Bridgestone.[2] In addition to the Michelin brand, it also owns the BFGoodrich, Kleber, Riken, Kormoran and Uniroyal (in North America) tyre brands.

It is also extremely well known for its Red and Green travel guides, its roadmaps, the Michelin stars that the Red Guide awards to restaurants for their cooking, and for its company mascot Bibendum, colloquially known as the Michelin Man.

Among Michelin's numerous inventions, there is the removable tyre and the radial tyre technology now used in modern "green tyres" that reduce fuel consumption.

- Mirage fighter jet - The Mirage III (French pronunciation: [miʁaʒ]) is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed by Dassault Aviation. It was a successful fighter aircraft, being sold to many air forces around the world and remaining in production for over a decade. Some of the world's smaller air forces still fly Mirage IIIs or variants as front-line equipment today.

- The Citroën 2CV was an economy car produced by the French car manufacturer Citroën between 1948 and 1990.[1] It was technologically advanced and innovative, but with uncompromisingly utilitarian unconventional looks, and deceptively simple bodywork,[3] that belied the sheer quality of its underlying engineering.

Tuesday, December 06, 2011

Thurs/Fri: Map test on La France and soap sculpture

escargots by mediadahling
escargots, a photo by mediadahling on Flickr.

Students wrote a Descriptive Quiche Essay in class this week - for 5 pts. In it they described the activity of making (or getting) a quiche. Complete with dialogue and sound effects.

The alternate essay required them to describe Napoleon I and the Citroen 2CV.

Also in their notes, in readiness fort a test on Thurs:

Map of France and neighbors
- 7 nations
- 4 bodies of water
- 3 cities

Automotive France:
- Citroen
- Peugot
- Michelin

Aeronautical France:
- the Mirage jet fighter.

Historic France:
- the Celts, or Gauls
- the Romans

Ideas from Paris
- Block traffic on the downtown streets on Sundays so bicyclists, roller skaters and walkers can take over.
- Pedestrian bridges over the River Seine.

Monday, December 05, 2011

Bring a bar of soap to class on Th / Fri for Relief sculpture study

Relief is a sculptural technique. The term relief is from the Latin verb levo, to raise.

An effective lesson in relief requires the student to sculpt a bar of soap. We will use large paper clips as tools.

Ivory Soap is the recommended brand. It is soft and forgiving in sculpture. But any full-size bar of soap will score the points.
- 10 pts for having the soap.
- 5 points for successful carving.

To create a sculpture in relief is thus to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane, says Wikipedia. What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised.

In high relief (alto-rilievo), more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas. There is also mid-relief (mezzo-rilievo), low-relief (basso-rilievo, or French: bas-relief), and shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato,[1] where the plane is scarcely more than scratched in order to remove background material. There is also sunken relief, which was mainly restricted to Ancient Egypt.

A bas-relief ("low relief", French, from the Italian basso rilievo) or low relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief.

In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is completely distorted, and if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image.

It is a technique which requires less work, and is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required. In the art of Ancient Egypt and other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, and also Meso-America, a very low relief was commonly used for the whole composition. These images would all be painted after carving, which helped to define the forms.