Tuesday, May 08, 2007

Exam notes: essay topics, part 1 of the study guide

Semester Study Guide / World geography / Trudeau

Essay for bonus pts (up to 10 pts). Choose one topic and find the needed notes in preparation for the in-exam composition. Follow guidelines below:
* Peter Dut, the fellow who went to Kansas City and US high school, vs Santino Chor, the guy who stayed in Houston, in Lost Boys of Sudan.
* USA vs Deutschland
* Thomas Berger, the guy who goes Nazi, vs Peter Muller, the fellow who lost his father to the Nazis, in Swing Kids.


The rubric (required elements) that will guide essay writing in geo class includes:
1. Colorful opening. There are 3 recommended ways to create an interest-getting opening: a) use a quote b) ask a question c) write with vivid description.
2. Blend the topics continually in the paper. Do not write a block of material about one topic and then write a separate block about the other topic. Integrate the topics as you offer insight and evidence.
3) Use comparison terms:
* different from,
* the same,
* Both,
* similar to,
* Neither, ... nor,
* like X is (adjective),
* ... than X is (adverb) than.
* both, ...
* either...or
* likewise
* similarly
* although,
* but neither...
* nor
* however
* on the other hand
4. Specific examples must be used to support generalities. An example: generality - The Incredibles was an awesome movie. specific - The Incredibles appealed to me because the characters (especially the mom and the teen sister) were believeable. They sounded like people I know.
5. Grammar counts.
6. Spelling, too. When in doubt, see a dictionary or ask me.
7. Punctuation is paramount. Again, ask me or your Grammar Check software.
8. Include documentation via "according to ...". This means include your source - from World Book to your little brother - in the body of your writing. Usually you place it at the end of the first or second sentence, says Grammar For Today.
9. Write a snappy title. Ways to make a title fun are to tweak a song or movie title or use alliteration. Also, write an explanatory subtitle. Example: "Dinkas are Incredibles;" "Many refugees from the Sudanese Dinka tribe have moved from poverty in east Africa to comfort in the US."
10. Finally, please don't put quotation marks around your title - unless you are quoting someone.

Notes . . .
1. demograhic info: populations
2. bureaucracy: government by layers of authority
3. evaluate: to measure the effectiveness of something
4. Dinka: African tribe
5. Nilotic: along the Nile
6. United Nations: world mediation association
7. refugee / asylum: person seeking safe haven
8. Peter Dut: refugee who goes to Kansas and graduates from a US high school.
9. Santino Chuor: refugee who works in Houston.
10. Sudan: civil war.
11. INS: Immigration and Naturalization Service: controls who gets to stay in the US.
12. ululation: high-pitched African cheering-type sound.
13. fu fu: food made by pounding a paste from roots.
14. Eastern Africa: Swahili country.
15. Swahili: language that unites people of East Africa.
16. Acacia tree: typical tree of Sudan in Africa.
17. English / British colony: Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Nigeria.
Arabic / Muslims: ancient colonizers of East Af.
18. mnemonic: memory aid.
19. Nairobi, Kenya: capital.
20. documentation : your source, or proof of your info.
21. indigenous: native peoples or things.
22. Houston: 4.5 M, Kansas City: 2 M

23. African gold mines: across the continent, but especially in S Af.
24. diamond mines / DeBeers Co.
25. Ashanti tribe: associated with Ghana.
26. Youssou n ’Dour: Senegalese singer.
27. Atlantic slave trade Europeans: 1500’s - 1800’s.
28.Atlantic slave trade Africans: enslavement of neighbors.
29.King Mansa Musa: Mali.
30. King Ibn Battuta: Morocco.
31. Ethiopian Christianity: East Africa.
32. Timbuktu / Toumbouctou: fabled city of gold on Sahara.

1) GDP & GCI is higher in a) Mexico b) Brasil.
2) The population is greatest in a) Rio de Janeiro b) Mexico City
c) Sao Paulo.
3. The Yucatan is surrounded by the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and Caribbean. T / F

1. Swahili / Lion King
2. Gates Foundation activities in Africa: AIDS in Africa.
3. Mt Kilimanjaro in Tanzania on the border with Kenya.
4. rift valley of East Africa; Origin of man in Africa.

1. Enormous influence on US culture: music (jazz, blues, r & b, gospel, rap), dance (jazz), cuisine (gumbo, fried chicken), vocabulary ( rock n’ roll, jazz, etc), though population is relatively small (about 12% US).
2. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: giving billions to disease control & eradication in Africa (AIDS, malaria, etc).
3. Coltan, diamonds & oil: resources needed in the present and future (coltan used in mini-batteries, such as in cell phones).

On the map of the continent of Africa (RMQRWA, p. 40):
1. Atlantic
2. Morocco (“How do you see all there is to see in Morocco?” “See it twice.”)
3. Senegal (guitar & dancer)
4. Liberia (African-Americans)
5. Nigeria (oil derrick)
6. South Africa (diamonds, gold)
7. Kenya (“Lion King,” Disney’s Animal Kingdom)
8. Sudan (guns crossed: civil war)
9. Somalia (Al qaeda terrorists)
10. Ethiopia (Christian cross)
11. Egypt (mask of Tutankhamun)
12. Mediterranean
13. Red Sea
14. Indian Ocean
15. Sahara (Arabic: “desert”)
geo review 05.07.07
1. Geologists believe the history of the earth spans some ___ years.
2. Nickel and iron soup: components of the earth’s __.
3. A thick pudding of iron and nickel: the __ __.
4. If you drape a beautifully decorated cloth over the shoulders of a priest, it is called a mantle. Explain how the earth’s geologic term, “mantle,” parallels this meaning. (one sentence)
5. The earth’s crust is made of flour, water, salt and rock. T / F
6. The crust varies in flavor. The seaweed crust is some __ miles thick. The baked crust is often about __ miles thick.
7. Why do you and I not agree with the text in regards the surface of the planet? We believe the earth is covered with trees, not seawater. Why do we believe this (go with me on this one, ok?) to be true? (one sentence)
8. Meantime, according to your text, what percentage of earth is not covered with water?
9. The largest continental mass?
10. How do you spell the “difference in elevation” on the land’s surface?
11. It’s called magma sometimes and lava at other times. What is it and why the dif?
12. Would you rather live near a fault or a fold in the earth’s crust?
Explain a fold.
13. The earth’s crust and the upper layer of mantle makes up the ___. “Lith” refers to rock and “sphere” refers to the ______.
14. Do the earth’s plates move Toward each other or Apart from each other?
15. Write down the etymology of the term Pangaea.
16. Would you call the 180 million years since continental drift began an extremely ancient earth phenomenon or relatively recent one? Explain by giving one additional measurement.
17. Explain the use of fossil evidence in the continental drift theory.
(one sentence)
18. A split in the earth’s crust is called a __.
19. Scientists believe in the theory of seafloor spreading. T / F
20. How do the earth’s crustal plates get the power to move?
21. If thermal energy is involved, what’s the source of the tectonic heat?
22. Sketch the platal dance that occurs when continental crust meets the oceanic crust.
23. In the case of the Andes Mtns., what’s ironic about subduction?
24. When continental plates collide, what is the result?
25. Which plates created the Himalayas?

Locations that are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire region, Y (yes) or N (no):

26. Philippines
27. Hawaii
28. Mexico
29. Chile
30. Bering Strait
31. Mt Vesuvius
32. Tasmania
33. Alaska
34. Indonesia
35. China
36. Ecuador
37. The Nazca Plate and the South American plate: a) subduction b) spreading
38. The San Andreas zone: a) converging b) faulting.
39. “Hot spots” in the mantle are associated with a) archipelagos
b) geysers c) mitosis.

1. Earth span: 4.6 billion years. Did you wonder how this estimate was generated?
2. Nickel & iron soup: outer core. What’s the composition of nickel?
Why nickel & iron?
3. Nickel & iron pudding: inner core.
4. The mantle is a robe draped over the core.
5. True. Why not?
6. seaweed: 5 miles “down.” baked crust: 20 miles deep. Surprised?
7. Local observation: when we observe local terrain it is tree rich. No seawater round here, yet.
8. About 30% not watery.
9. Eurasia is largest. It’s bigger than Texas.
10. r-e-l-i-e-f: the description of the upper and lower parts of the terrain.
11. Magma, lava: molten rock inside or outside the crust.
12. Neither. A fold is when a stratum of rock is bent or curved by huge force. The Appalachians are folds. There are upfolds (assoc w petroleum & coal deposits), or domes, and downfolds, or depressions.
13. lithosphere: crust & mantle. globe.
14. Both.
15. pan, “across” or “all,” and gaia, “earth.”
16. Recent compared to 4.6 billiob years of history.
17. Fossils are the same in separated plates, proving a historic closeness.
18. split: rift.
19. True, re seafloor spreading. Proven by photos taken by remote-controlled submarines.
20. Thermal energy or convection.
21. Thermal: decaying organic matter.
22. Subduction: coastal crust folds under the continental.
23. Subduction assoc with the opposite: mountain formation.
24. Plates collide: converging or faulting. Violence.
25. Indo-Australian plate vs. the Eurasian plate: Himalayas.
26. Philippines: Y
27. Hawaii: Y
28. Mexico: Y
29. Chile: Y
30. Bering Strait: Y
31. Vesuvius: N
32. Tasmania: N
33. Alaska: Y
34. Indonesia: Y
35. China: Y
36. Ecuador: Y
37. Nazca plate & S. Am. plate: subduction
38. San Andreas: faulting
39. Hot spots: a) archipelagos b) geysers and c) mitosis.
40. Most critical hydrologic issue of the ArkLaTex? hydrology, or water supply

1. MLK birthplace: a) Atlanta b) Memphis c) Charleston
2. PhD was awarded after study at a) Harvard b) Boston U. c) Johns Hopkins U.
3. First pastorate: a) Selma b) Jacksonville c) Montgomery.
4. First leadership of a boycott: a) Selma b) Jacksonville c) Montgomery.
5. Rosa Parks bus incident: a) 1955 b) 1958 c) 1961.
6. Outcome of year-long Alabama bus boycott was a ruling against discriminatory practices in public transportation: a) legislation by Congress b) Supreme Court decision.
7. King’s plan of non-violence was derived from the teachings and practice of a) TE Lawrence b) MK Gandhi c) Abraham Lincoln.
8. King also adopted Gandhi’s style of quiet and civilized rebellion. It was called a) non-violent protest b) civil disobedience c) passive resistance.
9. King was head of the a) SNCC b) SCLC c) NAACP.
10. The FBI was able to quietly help protect MLK and give him aid when needed. T / F
11. Head of the FBI for some 49 years: a) Robert kennedy
b) J Edgar Hoover c) Joseph McCarthy d) Henry Truman.
12. Alfred Nobel won fame and fortune with the a) TNT b) LSD c) LCD d) ICBM.
13. Name the president who did not side with King until the March on Washington showed that MLK could draw together 250,000 people of all backgrounds. a) LBJ
b) JFK c) Richard Nixon.
14. The “I have a Dream” speech was delivered in a) 1960 b) 1963 c) 1965.
15. King was murdered at age a) 36 b) 39 c) 41.
16. The Supreme Court decision most important to King’s work was one that ruled against one type of segregation:
a) jobs b) public transportation c) schools d) housing.
17. Unfair discrimination in housing and jobs was prohibited by the a) Civil Rights Act of 1964 b) Voting Rights Act of 1965.
18. Congressional bills against racist practice in 1964 and 1965 were pushed by President a) Kennedy b) Nixon
c) Johnson.

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